Monday, August 27, 2018

Revised Version




Kumari Kavingar K.P. Varatharajan

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I authorize the to print and market this book.
It shall not be reproduced by any others in any form.


2. Early years
3. Marital life
4. A turning point
5.The death of Thanumalaya Perumal
6.The resolution
7.The battle of Mankode
8. Refusal of Prince Marthanda Varma.
9.  A great escape
10. Demands of Prince Marthanda Varma
11. The battle of Panchavankadu
12. The end of Mundan
13. The destruction of the enemies.
14. The Mundaswamy Temple
15.The Annexation of Aattingal, Kilimanoor and Kollam
16. The refusal of Ananthan.
17. The Battle of Colachel.
18.The Celebrity of the Nation
19. Dalava Rama Iyen and the death of Ananthapadmanabhan
20. Anantha Padmanabhaswamy Temple, Thiruvananthapuram – Modern History of Travancore.
21. Ananthapadmanabhan after the times of Marthanda Varma.
Curriculum Vitae of the Author


This book deals with the heroic deeds of Ananthapadmanabhan. It shows how he became the master, bodyguard, companion, trusted friend, adviser, principal commander, celebrity and finally the deity of King Marthanda Varma.  
          It must be stated that there are no clear records to prove anything that happened 300 years ago in the Venad Kingdom.
          This book is based on the existing evidences, folk songs and oral statements of the descendants of Ananthapadmanabhan ,


One day, in March 2013, I happened to meet Mr.K.P. Varatharajan, the 10th descendant of Ananthapadmanabhan. He told me the story of Ananthapadmanabhan. As his native village ( Thachan vilai) is quite near to my village (Vellicode), I called on him at his house in Thachan vilai just to know more about Ananthapadmanabhan. He showed a sword, a copper edict and some other materials belonging to Ananthapadmanabhan. Besides, he handed over some books containing –among other things- the folk songs- in Tamil- of King Marthanda Varma era.
Having read Travancore Manual by Nagam Iyya,  Marthanda Varma by C.V. Raman Pillai and some other books, the folk songs inspired me to write the story of Ananthapadmanabhan for the benefit of the posterity.




           Ananthapadmanabhan was born at his mother’s house in the Charode Palace. in the Kollam year Chingam 24, 873 (1698 A.D.) to Thanumalaya Perumal Asan1 and Lekshmi Devi. Charode is a place – 700 metre away from the present Padmanabhapuram Palace.
He was brought up in his father’s house of 64 rooms in Thachan vilai iKannannoor in the Venad nation. Thachan vilai is located in the present day Veyyannoor Village in Kalkulam Taluk in Kanyakumari District in the Tamil Nadu state in India.
His father named him Ananthan Perumal, after the name of his grandfather. He had two brothers- Ponnam Perumal and Mayakonda Perumal –and two sisters – Thankapazham and Saraswathi Devi.
 His maternal uncle called him Padmanabhan. It was his pet name.
 Some of his relatives called him Babu Arasan and some others called him Ela Veera Rajan7.
Later, King Marthanda Varma clubbed Ananthan and Padmanabhan and called him Ananthapadmanabhan.
 Thanumalaya Perumal, was a descendant of the Thiruppapur2 Royal Family. This family traces its origin to a kingdom called Ay kingdom and later Chera kingdom3. A copper edict that exists today also indicates that he belonged to a royal family and was a blood relation of King Marthanda Varma.
Thanumalaya Perumal had over one hundred slaves4.
 Thanumalaya Perumal5 had been the Principal Commander of King Rama Varma. He had been overseeing weapon making. Moreover, he oversaw the armoury of Venad. Besides, he was the head of 108 martial arts - called kalari - training centres.

1. Asan is an erudite person in medicine or a skilled person in martial arts. He is usually named after his native village. The word "Asan" is suffixed to his village. Thus, in the name Mekkode Asan, Mekkode stands for the name of his village. In the name Punnaikkattu Asan, the first word stands for the village.
However, if his name is known, the word Asan is suffixed to his proper name. Thus, in the name Narayanaswamy Asan, Narayanaswamy stands for his proper name and Asan stands for his surname.
 Evidently, it is difficult to distinguish between the proper name, and the village.
Further, the art known as the Royal Art of Warfare and Medicine, especially for fracture and war wounds, was very famous in in the Venad Kingdom, particularly in the Vilavancode region. Athankottu Asan refers to this art as Santor Marai – the science of Santors.  

2. According to the temple chronicles, Sri Vira Ravi Varma, the senior Tiruvadi of Thiruppapur ruled Venad from 1479 to 1512 (Travancore Manual by Nagam Iyya, Page.278). The importance of Thiruppapur could be discerned.

3. It was customary for the Madura kings to address the kings of Venad as Nanchi-nattu Rajah, Nanjanad Rajah or Thiruvithankottu Raja.

4. Slavery was abolished only in 1859 AD

5. Thirparpur is a place between the present Thiruvithankode6 and Keralapuram.

6. St Thomas had built a church at Thiruvithancode. This indicates that Thiruvithankode had been the capital of Venad. A Maha Vishu statue chiselled out of a single stone was found in Tiruvithankode. It is now kept in the Padmanabhapuram Palace museum.

7. It is customary for the people of this area to have multiple names even now (2018).

Ref: 1. Thiruvadi Desam Thiruparpur Paramparai Maaveeran Ananthapadmanabhan Varalaru by Kumari Kavinger K.P.Varatha Rajan.
2.Anotomy of a folklore “Ottan Kathai by Dr. M. Immanual.
2. History of Travancore by Nagam Iiya.
3. Wikipedia

Thachan vilai (1-4-2013)
Thachan vilai (1-4-2013)

The path to Thachan vilai (1-4-2013)

A tree in Thachan vilai (1-4-2013)

The path to Thachan vilai (Photo taken on 1-4-2013)

Path to Thachan vilai (1-4-2013)

Sri Bootha Sastha temple at Thachan vilai (1-4-2013).

At Thachan vilai (1-4-2013)

Iron ore that remains at Thachan vilai (2013). Iron for making weapons was extracted from this kind of ore


The early years

The teacher of Ananthan Perumal was his father, Thanumalaya Perumal.  He gave him intense training in Kalari (martial arts) in his Kalari fight practicing centre at Thachan Vilai.
 Ananthan Perumal mastered all the 64 skills of martial arts that included – in Tamil- vaal (sword), vil (bow = a weapon for shooting arrows), adivelai (a type of soad fighting), chilambam, kurunthadi and nedumthadi.
Besides, a horseman from an Arab country gave him training in horse riding. Prince Rama Varma made necessary arrangements for this along with his two sons - Pappu Tambi and Raman Tambi.  The training was imparted at Kuthiraipantivilai.
 Courage, speed, ruthlessness and wisdom were the inherited qualities of Ananthan Perumal.
The debut of Ananthan Perumal was before Prince Rama Varma1 at Suchindram temple in the year1713 during the Margali Thiruvzha (Margali festival). He was 15 at that time.
Prince Rama Varma commended him and gave him the title – in Tamil- Paranthakan meaning a brave man.
Later Prince Rama Varma ruled Venad  for a short period of time from 1724 to 1728. 

The real sword of Ananthapadmanabhan (Photo taken on 1-4-2013). It is present in the house of Kumari Kavinger K.P. Varatharajan.

A sward present in the Padmanabhapuram Palace Museum. It resembles the sward of Ananthapadmanabhan.


Marital life

      At the age of 21, Ananthan Perumal married the daughter of his maternal uncle, Parvathi Ammai from the then famous Nadalwar family.
 Parvathi Ammai gave birth to a son, Ayyam Perumal. But she died when the child was just two and a half years.
 Ananthan Perumal decided not to marry again. He considered this as his marriage vow.


A turning point

       One day, Prince Marthanda Varma called on Thanumalaya Perumal –father of Ananthan Perumal - at his house in Thachan vilai and sought asylum.
Thanumalaya Perumal had been the Principal Commander of King Rama Varma. He had been making weapons for Venad. Further, he had been imparting martial arts to hundreds of disciples.
Above all, he had been the head of 108 martial arts schools (training centres) in Venad.
In those situations, it was a bold decision on the part of Prince Marthanda Varma to enter his house. In fact, it was the turning point in the history Venad.
 Thanumalaya Perumal knew that Marthanda Varma was the legitimate heir to the throne. Therefore, he decided to support him.
 Firstly, he asked his son, Ananthan Perumal, to give martial arts training to the Prince as quickly as possible. 
Ananthan Perumal taught all the 64 skills of martial arts -day and night - to him within a span of six months.
The Prince stayed in the house of Thnumalaya Perumal during this period. His whereabouts were not revealed to anyone. Whatever happened, none dared to attack the house of Thanumalaya Perumal or the Prince during this period.
As a disciple of Ananthan Perumal (Refer Chapter 20), the Prince learnt all the skills and became a skilful swordsman and horseman. Even one hundred soldiers would fail to hurt him in a straight fight.
Then Ananthan Perumal became his body-guard, trusted friend, companion, adviser, Principal Commander of Venad, celebrity and finally his deity.
 The circumstances that forced Prince Marthanda Varma to seek asylum must be noted.
The rulers of Venad followed a strange system of inheritance known as "Marumakkathayam" since 1304 A.D.
As per the above system, when a king dies, his sister's son will succeed him. His inheritance does not belong to his sons, or his brother, or any of his other relations. The reason attributed was that the king would keep contact with many women outside the royal family and as such his children may not carry the royal blood.
If the king has no sister, a girl from a royal family would be adopted. well-guarded and kept in great esteem. She would not be exposed to the common people and no man can approach her. It was the custom and there were many rigid rules of convention to perpetrate it. No one -it is said- reaches the throne by means of the strong hand. It is a unique system not seen in any other place. This system still exists in the Travancore Royal family.
The loyal subjects accepted it and worshipped the ruler on the throne.
However, a section of the people in every community gradually became very powerful and plotted to change the system of succession.  They argued that the matriarchal system of succession that had been followed thereto was fundamentally wrong, as it violated the basic principles of birth right, ignoring the prerogatives of the male. Therefore, they said that the system must be changed forthwith.
Some conspired to extirpate the royal family for this. Their aim was to establish a republic.    As it had a public interest political overtone, the people were vertically divided. Naturally, a section in every caste and religion opposed the system of succession.
Earlier, the opponents of the system had murdered King Aditya Varma.
Besides, they had drowned five out of six sons of his niece Umayamma Rani at Kalippan Kulam in the Kalkulam Palace.
Prince Rama Varma had been taking a neutral stand in the question of succession till he became the King in 1724. 
After ascending the throne, King Rama Varma apportioned the southern portion of Venad (Northern portion was under Aattingal) into three parts. The areas surrounding Kalkulam and Nagercoil palaces were given to his two sons - Pappu Tambi and Raman Tambi (Papu Tambi and Raman Tambi were called Tambi brothers)- and Neyyattinkara area was given to Prince Marthanda Varma.
At the instance of Prince Marthanda Varma, King Rama Varma in 1726 signed a treaty with Madurai Nayak. As per that treaty Madurai Nayak would supply his force to check the rebels. This strengthened the hands of Prince Marthanda Varma. 
 However, when King Rama Varma became sick, rebels closed ranks with the Tambi brothers. They said that Pappu Tambi -the elder son- would succeed his father on the throne. They took this political stand only to bring a cleavage in the royal house.
They openly stated in the streets that the matriarchal dynasty would end in the Venad Kingdom with the death of the King Rama Varma.
 As soon as King Rama Varma died, Tambi brothers accepted this new revolutionary school of thought and decided to assassinate Prince Marthanda Varma.
 The Tambi brothers issued orders to prevent the Prince from escaping to any place north of Neyyattinkara or to the Pandian Kingdom in the South. 
Many chieftains too wanted the destruction of the royal family. To check the rebels, Prince Marthanda Varma requested Aattingal ( or Attungal) Rani to pay tribute to Azakappa Muthaliar. But she refused. The Prince was disappointed. At the same time, the King of Kollam, Jaya Singh, mobilized a force to claim Venad. He said that he was the legitimate ruler of Venad.
Despite the above situation, majority of the people in Venad were very loyal to Prince Marthanda Varma.  However, the Prince felt that he was hemmed on all sides by enemies. He had two options: to escape or be killed. He opted for the former. Therefore, he left Neyyantinkara and ran for his life. Thus, he chose not to jump into the hand of the murdering crowd.

1. Thiruvadi Desam Thirupparpur Parambarai Maaveeran Ananthapadmababhan Varalaru by K.P. Varatharajan.
2. Travancore State Manual by V. Nagam Iiya.
3.."Times of Marthanda Varma"by Ibrahim Kunchu.
4. "Naattu Varalaru" by T.K. Velu Pillai
5. Wikipedia

1.  The rich people in Marthandom, Ramanamatam, Kulattur, Kazhakuttam, Venganur, Chempazhanti, Koduman and Pallichal were entrusted with the collection of the Devaswam (Temple) revenues. Some of them had been mere tillers.  They did not belong to the same  caste or religion. Many present day - (2013AD)- castes were not there about 250 years ago.
2. The East India Company, in the year 1728, obtained permission from Prince Marthanda Varma of Neyyattinkara to construct a go-down at Colachel in the year 1728.  This indicates that the East India Company considered Prince Marthanda Varma as the legitimate heir to the throne.
3. Kalippan Kulam still exists. It is in the Padmanabhapuram Fort in the Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu state. The name indicates that children were enticed to play in that pond.

4. According to some historians, Marthanda Varma was the son of the sister of King Rama Varma. The room in which she lived exists today in the Padmanabhapuram Palace.
According to some other historians Marthanda Varma was born at Kilimanoor in 1706 to the Queen of Venad, who was adopted in 1688 from Kolathini family of Malabar as Queen of Aattingal. 
    The name of his father was Raghava Varma and his grandfather was Ittammar Raja. It is said that they hailed from the Kingdom of Thirupparpur, one of the branches of the Venad Royal Family.
5. It is said that a king of Venad had no heir. His sister’s son became the King of Venad. After that, “Marumakkathayam was perpetrated. This happened around the year 1300 A.D.  There are no records to prove this.


The death of Thanumalaya Perumal

As Thanumalaya Perumal, father of Ananthan Perumal, could not be defeated in a straight fight, one Kunchu Neelan poisoned him to death. Ananthan suspected that the enemies of Prince Marthanda Varma had a hand in it.
After the passing away of Thanumalaya Perumal, Ananthan Perumal felt that his house was no longer safe for the Prince.
Therefore, he secretly took the Prince to Mankode Asan and left him under his care.\
The Prince acquainted a slave called Mundan at Mankode Asan’s house.
Mundan had been a slave of Thanumali of Pottayadi. He was a very intelligent man. The Prince used him as a messenger called –in Tamil- Oottan.  Besides, he was being asked to roam in different places disguised as Prince Marthanda Varma. This was to divert the attention of his enemies.

A copper edict (document) given to Anantha Padmanabhan by King Marthanda Varma.

Ananthapadmanabhan was laid to rest in this place. An old vessel is seen.

Mr. K.P. Varatharajan holding the document- copper plate


The resolution

The rebels started searching for Prince Marthanda Varma. They tortured the people suspected of harbouring him. They cut off the fingers, nose and the ears of some people. Some others were put in prison. The atrocities disturbed Ananthan.
He convened a meeting of the Asans. Separate letters - written on palmyra leaf - called ola - were sent to 108 Asans asking them to assemble at the Kalari centre in Purakkattur in the Thiruvattar path.
The meeting resolved to stand by Prince Marthanda Varma and put him on the throne. Besides, they resolved to sacrifice their lives - if necessary- for this. As it was a political problem, a few joined the rank of the rebels.

Reference: In Tamil - Oottan Kathai Nattupura Varalattu Kathai Padal, Page 14.
A rough translation of the relevant part of the Tamil poem of Marthanda Varma era is given below.

Invitation leaves flew to108 Kalaries
Separate invitations for the wise and the venerable
Congregated on Friday in the Purakkattoor Square
Asans in hundreds; their children in thousands
Gathered together for the growth of their clan
The brave and the wise; the public and the household
A crowd, a big crowd –a crowd of the learned
With a heart-breaking mind, calmly they listened
In the shadow of 16 umbrellas came the venerable
One among them welcomed with folded hands
And started to talk;
 “What if some are fighting- what if there is coronation
Lord is now running after the venerable
Ear, nose and fingers of the people are being cut
 For whom we live in this world”---
Suddenly Ananthan rose like a tiger
And roared;
“We will extirpate the Madan crowd
And dance round and round the country
We will put the lord on the throne
Put a garland round his neck
And carry him round and round the country
He will marry a girl from the Thiruppapur area
And we will take care of his child”.
When they talked like this
There came messenger Chathan saying
“Asans and the venerables, the house of Mankode Asan is burning
Those Tambi kids torture one and all
Thinking that the lord was in the house
They destroy everything”.


The battle of Mankode

While Prince Marthanda Varma was hiding in the house of Mankode Asan, the Tambis got wind of it and sent a large number of lancers to eliminate him. Suspecting that the Prince was hiding in one corner or other of the house of 64 rooms, they surrounded it and torched it.
    The Prince was not in the house but watched everything from a long distance.
When Ananthan Perumal reached Mankode, the house of Mankode Asan was still on fire. He slaughtered the lancers with lightning speed. A few lancers escaped the sword of Ananthan, returned to the Kalkulam Palace and reported the matter to Pappu Tambi.
 B.K. Menon had translated into English the Malayalam Novel, Marthanda Varma, by C.V. Raman Pillai. He has described the mode of fighting of Ananthan Perumal at Mankode as follows. 
      "Holding a heavy sword in either hand, executing intricate steps to the tune of his own music, using both hands and feet with incredible ease and deadly precision, the slow witted Ananthan was advancing steadily towards them, displaying a new mode of fighting. Trained to the hair and skilled warriors as they were, the Ananthan's style and mode of advance was new and perplexing to them. While not a single cut or thrust seemed so much as to touch him, his very breath seemed to spell death among their own crowd. His progress through their midst was marked all around by the number of dead or dying. To look upon his weapon was to look the last upon the world! ******* But he had gone as he had come, and no one was in a position to say more about him."

Note:1. Whenever Prince Marthanda Varma was in danger, he used to think of Ananthan. The latter used to appear in the danger spot to save him. He could not tell whether it was due to his divine power or due to the supernatural or magical power of Ananthan. This happened on many occasions. C.V. Raman Pillai’s narration does indicate that Ananthan possessed some supernatural or magical powers.
2.. Being a novel, C.V. Raman Pillai had not used the word Ananthan but used another name. 
3. Mankode is a place near to Thikkanamkode in the Kalkulam Taluk of Kanyakumari District.


The refusal of the Prince

The lancers had no evidence to show that Prince Marthanda Varma was killed in the Battle of Mankode. They narrated what happened at Mankode to Pappu Tambi.
The infuriated Pappu Tambi asked the guards in the Kalkulam Fort to arrest the person who saved the Prince after killing the lancers.
 The guards trampled over the feelings of the people and dragged many suspects to the Kalkulam Fort.   Their kith and kin followed them. One of the suspects had no connection with the Mankode incident. Hence, he could not furnish the required information to Pappu Tambi. In a minute his innocent head, according to C.V. Rama Pillai, rolled in the dust. Soon more guards returned bringing in more and more suspects. All suspects belonged to the community of Ananthan Perumal. None of them were able to enlighten the enraged Tambi. They too paid their penalty with their lives. “Soon the palace courtyard became filled with corpses, and the air reeked with the sickening stench of clotted human blood and the plaintive cries of the innocent victims”. After some time, the guards brought another suspect. A mini revolt occurred in the fort as some guards resented the action of Pappu Tambi and turned against him.
Ananthan Perumal requested Prince Marthanda Varma to enter the fort with the support of the assembled crowd to seize power. But the latter refused to do so. The Prince considered the suggestion as a suicidal one, for he suspected the presence of guns in the fort.
Instead, Prince Marthanda Varma requested Ananthan Perumal to take him to the Madura King.


The great escape

      Prince Marthanda Varma, Ananthan Perumal, Mundan, Mekkode Asan and others discussed various options. The Prince wanted to confront the Tambi brothers with the help of Madura forces. But Mundan said that there was heavy security at Aralvaimozhi pass and the act of crossing that pass would be very risky. He suggested that Thanumalai of Pottayadi would welcome the Prince. He added that he knew many hiding places near Pottayadi.
 The Prince, Ananthan and Mekkode Asan obliged.
They set out for Pottayadi – a border place about 40 km away from Mankode - and reached the house of Thanumalai in the morning.
him milk, honey, banana and flour balls.
 They avoided Kottar, Suchindram and Parakai because Tambi brothers had many supporters in those places. 
It was a great escape.
Later, it was this Thanumalai who supplied rice to the armed forces of King Marthanda Varma during his annexation of many small kingdoms.
A folk song in Tamil narrates the great escape.  An approximate translation of that Tamil folk song (Pages 17 to 20) is given below.

“On hearing the lord, Ananthan became silent
The messenger (The Oottan) began to talk
There are many wicked people in Thovalai
If you want to go to foreign country
I know many tricks near Pottayadi
My master Thanumalai will render all helps
He has hundreds of slaves
Thousands of relatives
 His kith and kin are on either side of the thorn fort
Azhagappar also would send his force
There were many suggestions
Came to a conclusion without wasting time
They made a bamboo ladder
Requested the lord to sit over it
Four men carried and forty followed
Ananthan and Oottan with open eyes
All single minded
Shunning broad path and big villages
They ran in the moonlit night
They passed Manthankad and Kuzhimaikad
Went through Valliyaru and Veeppanad 
Avoiding Veeranarayanachery
Entered Ayiramkanam Kuttikad
Keeping away Kaliyankad, reached Peruvilai
Cock crew when they went near Panchavankad
Without going near Kottar they went towards Parakai
Then they passed through Vaiyanivilai and pond
Walking through the out-skirts of Suchindram
They passed Mulaikad and Kalkad
There were signs of daybreak when they crossed Pazhayaru
Chose to go through Punnaikkavu and Ethankad
After that they saw Adukku Pottai
Crossing the broad pass, they went beyond Pottai
And stood near the door of Thanumalai”.

In Tamil, the Oottan Kathai Nattupura Varalattu Kathi Padal of Marthanda Varma era.


Demands of Prince Marthanda Varma

After talking to Ananthan Perumal, Thanumalai, Mundan and others at Pottayadi, Prince Marthanda Varma said that:
1.  Ananthan must meet Nava Kodi Narayanan of Kottar to fetch gold and silver.
2.  Vadakkan Sahib must bring Peerukkannu Sahib of Midalam. This was to talk in Hindustani to the rulers of Nabab at Madurai and
3.   Mundan must roam at Thovalai disguised as Prince Marthanda Varma to spread the rumour that the Prince was in that area.
Accordingly, they left Pottayadi to carry out the work detailed to them. The Prince remained in the house of Thanumalai.

Reference: In Tamil- Thiruvadi Desam Thiruppavur Parambarai Maaveeran Ananthapadmanabhan Varalaru by K.P. Varatharasan.


The battle of Panchavankad

When Ananthan Perumal and his disciples were secretly returning to Pottayadi to report to Prince Marthanda Varma, Tambi brothers came in a cavalry and surrounded them at Panchavankad- a place near Nagercoil.
 Ananthan and his men had no hiding place. It became a life and death problem to them. Ananthan had two options - to kill or be killed. He opted for the former.
Instantly, he unsheathed his sword from its scabbard and took a few deliberate steps to engage them. Then, walking back and forth he stretched his sword. In the ensuing battle, he slaughtered his enemies with lightning speed. Some managed to escape his sword and ran for life. Along with the dead bodies were the fatally wounded Tambi brothers.
 The wounded Tambi brothers requested Ananthan to kill them. But the latter refused to do so. He said that he could not do anything without the specific orders from Prince Marthanda Varma.
The news spread like wild fire. The people converged in large numbers. They saw the mortally wounded Tambi brothers.
The supporters of Tambi brothers deserted the palace at Nagercoil and the people seized the palace.
 Prince Marthanda Varma heard the news and heaved a sigh of relief. Accompanied by Thanumalai, he reached Nagercoil.  The wounded Tambi brothers were shown to him. He noticed that they would not survive. He then issued orders to kill them and bury them after putting some rice into their mouth. Their tombs are at a place near the palace in Nagercoil.

Note: 1. The present Office of the Superintendent of Police functions at the palace in Nagercoil.

References:1. In Tamil- Oottan Kathai Naattuppura Varalattu Kathi, (The Tamil folk song of Marthanda Varma era).
2. The people later named many places around Panchavankad after Ananthan such as Ananthan kal, Ananthan kulam, Ananthanadar Kudiyiruppu


The end of Mundan

Mundan stayed at a ruined hut in Thovalai. He wandered around that area disguised as Prince Marthanda Varma in the morning. The soldiers of Tambi brothers mistook him as Prince Marthanda Varma and caught him at Rajavoor. At that time, he was eating balls composed of jaggery and sesame. Then they tied him in a ladder and carried him towards Nagercoil just to produce him before Tambi brothers.
 Now they stumbled upon the news that Tambi brothers had been fatally cut in a battle. They, therefore, took him towards Pottayadi.
 When they reached Pottayadi, Mundan smiled at them. Infuriated by this, Madhava Madambi immediately cut him into two pieces with his sword. This incident occurred at the base of a Marutha tree in Pottayadi.
 The news about the death of Mundan deeply moved Prince Marthanda Varma. He sent Ananthan, Thanumalai and Vadakkan Pattani (an assistant of Ananthan) for performing the last rites.
Mundan was buried below the marutha tree.

Reference: In Tamil –Oottan Kathai Varalattu Naattupura Kathai Padal Pages 27-28 (Tamil Folk songs)


The destruction of the enemies

After the death of Thambi brothers, the rebels and the petty chieftains became very refractory. As a result, anarchy and confusion in their worst forms stalked the land.
Further, Prince Marthanda Varma came to know – through spies and well-wishers – that they were waiting for a chance to eliminate him.
 Above all, he considered the death of Mundan as his own death. Therefore, he declared war against his enemies. He issued orders to Anandan to destroy, kill or capture all those who wanted to kill him.
 Accordingly, Anandan destroyed the houses of the hardcore rebels in every community in many places-Melankode, Neyyattinkara, Vanchiyoor (later Thiruvananthapuram) included. All those who resisted his attack were killed. In some places women were captured and auctioned.
In the present-day standards (2018) those acts could be construed as human rights violations. The only consolation is that an act of murder is not a murder if it is committed by a soldier.
In this way, Ananthan suppressed the internal revolt and put the throne on the head of Prince Marthanda Varma.

Note: King Rama Varma died in 1728 and Prince Marthanda Varma became the King in 1729 only.
The sword of Anantha Padmanabhan in the hand his 10th descendant, Mr.K.P. Varatharasan.


The transformation of Mundan into a deity

         After thus ascending the throne of Venad-in 1729- King Marthanda Varma wanted to perpetuate the memory of Mundan.
He issued orders to construct a temple at the place where he had been murdered.
The main deity in that temple even today is Mundan.  The temple is called Mundaswamy koil. In order to celebrate the festival every year, he granted sufficient land.
Besides, he issued orders to construct a separate alter for the statue of Mundan in every temple in Venad and perform puja using jaggery and sesame.
Thus, Marthanda Varma raised Mundan to the status of a deity because he died for him. He simply saw every selfless human being as an incarnation of God.
No other King had done like this before.

Note: The Tamil Nadu Devasom Board celebrates the festival of Mundan in the last Friday of the Tamil month Aadi.
 2. The people of Pottayadi consider Mundan as their family deity.
3. Pujas (prayers) are performed with jaggery and sesame because Mundan was eating balls composed of jaggery and sesame when he was caught.
4. In expiation of the sins incurred by the war, alters were constructed in many temples and pujas performed for the victims. Pujas are being performed in many places even today (2018)


Annexation of small kingdoms

After consolidating his position as the King of Venad,  Marthanda Varma, wanted to annex Aattingal (also called Attungal).
 Aattingal had claimed sovereignty over Venad. According to some historians both Marthanda Varma and the Queen of Aattingal - called Tamburetties - belonged to the same Chera clan. But she had taken some decisions affecting the sovereignty of Venad (Refer back – Chapter 4).
Therefore, Marthanda Varma issued orders to his Principal Commander, Ananthan Perumal, to attack Aattingal.  Ananthan had become such a terror, the Rani of Aattingal surrendered without resistance. She was pensioned off.
Kilimannoor, ruled by the members of the Venad family, was also annexed. Later he granted autonomous status to it. The reason was that this county had defeated the Dutch in a small battle.
Kollam was attacked in 1731 and a treaty was signed.

 1.History of Travancore by Nagam Iyya.
 2. Thiruvadi Desam Thiruparpur Paramparai Maaveeran Ananthapadmanabhan Varalaru.
3.The Queen of Auttugal was a powerful ruler. She had a large territory of her own independent of Venad. It is said that Auttingal and Tiruppapur were two ‘Swarupams’

Note: Some historians say that the King of Kollam was the cousin of King Marthanda Varma.


The refusal of Ananthan

Dalawa Arumugam Pillai died in 1736. Then the King, Marthanda Varma, appointed his younger brother, Thanu Pillai, as the Dalawa. He also died in 1738. After that Rama Iyen became the Dalawa.
 Ananthan Perumal did not want to become a Dalawa just for the sake of it. In fact, Rama Iyen was appointed only at the instance of Ananthan Perumal.
Now, the King wanted Ananthan Perumal to attack Kayamkulam as a preparatory step to capture Cochin. Ananthan Perumal refused. He requested the King not to be reckless. He pointed out the presence of guns in the hands of the enemies and returned to the Palace at Charode along with eight other Asans.
The King and the Dalawa stayed in Kayamkulam like the birds without wings. 


The battle of Colachel

While the King, Marthanda Varma, and the Dalawa (Chief Secretary), Rama Iyen, were undertaking negotiations with the Raja of Kayamkulam, the Dutch East India Company landed at Colachel to invade Venad.
As the Venad force was concentrated at Kayamkulam, Ananthan Perumal immediately requested Mankode Asan, Orappanavilai Asan, Chellamkonam Asan, Mekkode Asan, Athankode Asan, Nadutheri Asan and his disciples to send their men with whatever weapons like chopper to Colachel.
Ananthan gathered information and intelligence from the local fishermen. He equipped his infantry with spears and swords and organized into an offensive formation. The preparation took about three weeks.
 Ananthan had little experience with guns. But his father had taught him deception and guile to deflect the energies of his opponents and strengthen his own position. After waiting for some days, he decided to take a calculated risk.
He entered Colachel at the front of a small cavalry unit and charged into a large contingent of well armoured Dutch. Slaughter followed and the Dutch infantrymen fell to the ground. The other Asans also made a lightning strike and started decimating them.
His attack was the most ruthless. The Dutch were not sure where an attack from Ananthan forces might come. They simply could not manoeuvre against the Ananthan forces. In fact, they could not neutralize his attack in any way. They did not want to put up a fight as the strategic advantage of guns and cannons were of no use to them and surrendered on 31 July 1741.
Inclement weather, a fire in the depot and lack of reinforcement contributed to the surrender.
The Dutch saw the resolve of a horse man fighting for his country on his own soil although they said that they had lost to base people.
The battle was over within a day. Many in the Dutch died. Only 24 lived. They surrendered. Among them was their captain, Eustachius De Lannoy.
  Besides, Ananthan got 389 muskets, a few pieces of cannon and many swords.
 Ananthan was very magnanimous in victory. He promised that no retribution would accrue to them.

An artist’s description of De Lannoy surrender before Ananthan
Courtesy: Colachel war memorial

De Lannoy surrender picture seen in the Padmanabhapuram Palace Museum.
 1. Naattu Varalaru by T.K. Velu Pillai.
2. Travancore State Manual by V.Nagam Iiya
3. From the oral tradition as narrated by the 10th descendant of Ananthan Perumal, Mr. K.P. Varatharasan, in the month of April 2013 to the present writer.
4. The Dutch are, at present, known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. 

For further reading visit Chapters 219 and 220 of www. 


The Celebrity of Venad

When the King, Marthanda Varma, and the Dalawa, Rama Iyen, reached Kalkulam Palace, Eustachius De Lannoy had already been captured. Ananthan produced the Dutch prisoners before the King in the Kalkulam Palace. The latter pardoned De Lonnoy and requested him to modernize his army after European style. He obliged. He was thus made the captain of the Venad Army.
 De Lonnoy modernized the Venad Army by introducing better firearms, uniform and discipline.
De Lonnoy then led the Venad Army for the subsequent expansion of territory up to Kayamkulam because martial arts were no longer an answer to guns.
 At the same time, Ananthan Perumal was raised to the status of a celebrity.
Venad celebrated the victory over the Dutch in an unprecedented scale. In fact, Ananthan became the celebrity of the nation.
King Marthanda Varma decided to perpetuate the name of Ananthan even during his life time. He gave greater importance to the name of Ananthan over his own name. Thus, he renamed the Kalkulam Kottaram (Palace) as Padmanabhapuram Kottaram and the name of the capital of Venad as Padmanabhapuram. This happened in 1744. Having stayed in the house of Ananthan Perumal, he knew that the pet name of Ananthan Perumal was Padmanabhan.
Immediately, the people followed suit. Thus, he is the namesake of:
1.  Ananthan Palam
2.   Ananthan Theppakulam
3.   Ananthan Kulam
4.   Ananthan Konam
5.  Anantha Nadar Kudiyiruppu
6.  Anantha Padmanabhapuram
7.  Sree Padmanabha Nalloor
8.  Anantha Mangalam
9.  Padmanabhan Thittai
10.                   Ananthan Kaadu.
 And 11. Ananthan Paarai are some of the places named after Ananthan Perumal by the people.
The people wanted to construct a beautiful (In Tamil – Azakia) hall (In Tamil- mandapam) in the name of Ananthan Perumal through public subscription. The hall was not constructed but the proposed site got the name Azakiamandapam.
Then, King Marthanda Varma -to the discomfiture of many- started giving large areas of land to Ananthan Perumal. He granted land to Mankode Asan, Nadutheri Asan, Chellamkonam Asan, Mekkode Asan, Palavilai Asan and Athankottu Asan also for lending their support to Ananthan Perumal.
He granted Ananthan Perumal about 1,40,000 acre of land in different parts of Venad through 24 copper edicts.
A copper edict given to Ananthan Perumal still exists in the hand of the 10th descendant of Ananthan Perumal. The present writer saw it on 1 April 2013. In that copper plate, the King clubbed his name and his pet name into one.  Thus his name became Ananthapadmanabhan.
The salient features of the copper edict are: 
1. King Marthanda Varma acknowledged Ananthapadmanabhan as his relation.
2. He called him Brammakula Shathriyan.
3. He extolled him as his right hand.
4. He praised publicly that he protected his life on many occasions.
5. He disclosed that he dedicated his life for him.
6.He said that he had extirpated his enemies.
7. He proclaimed that he was giving the properties because of his unlimited happiness.

Reference:  Maaveeran Ananthapadmanabhan Varalaru by.K.P. Varatharasan.

1.Two inscriptions at the Bhagavatyhi temple at Valvachagostam in Kalkulam prove that Venad was under the sovereignty of Sri Vira Revi Varma from 795 to 798 M.E. (1620 A.D.-1623 A.DD). The word Travancore is not seen.
2. .John Nieuhoff, the Chief Director of the Dutch Company at Quilon on the year 1664 in “Voyages and Travels” mentions ‘Kalkolang’ (Kalkulam) as the chief residence of the king.
3. The proceedings of the ryots (farmers) held at Kadukkara on the 16th of Kartikai 898 (1722 A.D.)  mentions the sovereign at Kalkulam (and not Padmanabhapuram).
4.Even to-day (2018) the Padmanabhapuram Palace is situated in the Kalkulam village in the Kalkulam Taluk.
5. The other copper plates given to Ananthan Perumal were destroyed when the opponents of Ananthan Perumal set fire to his house at Thachan vilai later and many properties did not come under the possession of his descendants.
6. An expert in the Department of Archaeology, Government of Kerala, had officially authenticated the writing in the copper plate as that of Marthanda Varma era.
7. The population of Venad during the times of Marthanda Varma was not much (Refer the note under Chapter 21).
8. King Marthanda Varma had conferred many privileges to De Lannoy. The latter lived in a stone fort at Udayagiri in Puliyurkuruchi near Padmanabhapuram Fort. He allowed him to live like a king. When he died in 1777, King Karthigai Thirunal Rama Varma - successor of King Marthanda Varma - interred him at Udayagiri Fort with full state honours and constructed a chapel over it. Thus, he virtually raised De Lannoy to the status of a deity of the Catholic Christian religion. He did it despite the allegation that De Lannoy had been instrumental in converting a minister of King Marthanda Varma - Neelakanda Pillai- into the Catholic Christian religion after changing his name into Devasahayam Pillai. The fort and the tomb still exist in their original form. The remnants of the chapel also exist today (2018). The tomb of his wife, Margette De Lannoy, could be seen on one side. The tomb of his son, John De Lannoy who died for the King in the battle of Kalakkadu, also could be seen on the other side. No other king honoured his enemy captain like this. In fact, this has no parallel anywhere in the world. It is simply incredible.
          The tombs are now being protected by the Department of Archaeology although the protection is not up to the minimum standard. However, they are an important tourist centre in the Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu State in India.
Recently, a few descendants of De Lannoy - living in the Netherlands - called at Udayagiri Fort and expressed their gratitude to King Marthanda Varma and his successors. 

Photos from top to bottom: 1. Padmanabhapuram Palace during the times of Marthanda Varma. 2. Padmanabhapuram Fort 3. Padmanabhapuram fort on the northern side (A reflexion of the very poor maintenance). 4. Padmanabhapuram fort gate 5. Padmanabhapuram fort southern side inside view. 6. Udayagiri fort where De Lannoy lived- showing its poor maintenance. 6. De Lannoy Tomb gate. 8. Tamil inscriptions near De Lannoy chapel 9. De Lannoy chapel remains. 10. Structure over De Lannoy Tomb. 11. Tombs of De Lannoy, his wife and son. 12. De Lannoy Tomb close-up view 13. About De Lannoy tomb in Tamil seen near the chapel.



 Dalava Rama Iyen 
The death of Ananthapadmanabhan

      When Venad was celebrating the heroic deeds of Ananthapadmanabhan, Dalawa Rama Iyen wanted to go a step ahead of others. He announced that a State Dinner would be held once a month at his official residence in Aruvikkarai to felicitate Ananthapadmanabhan. This had the blessing of the Queen of Venad also. This Dinner went on smoothly for two and a half years.
However, on the Kollam Year 28 Chingam 925, during the State Dinner at AruvikkaraiVelan and Kuttan – two servants of Dalawa-cut Ananthapadmanabhan at his stomach with their sword. Ananthapadmanabhan was not bearing any shield at that time. As they cut him while he dined, he could not defend his life.
 Ananthanpadmanabhan tied his intestine with a long cloth and rode to Thachanvilai on his horse. After reaching Thachanvilai he died. His horse also died as it had been also wounded.
The melancholy news of passing away of Ananthapadmanabhan deeply moved King Marthanda Varma. Flanked by a retinue of bodyguards, he rushed to Thachanvilai, attended the funeral and returned to Padmanabhapuram Palace.
The body of Ananthapadmanabhan now lies interred at Thachanvilai.

Note: Dalawa is equivalent in rank and power to the Chief Secretary to a present day government.

Reference:Thiruvadi Desam Ananthapadmanabhan varalaru by K.P.Varatharajan


Transforming Ananthapadmanabhan into a deity

Perhaps because of the feeling that Lord Perumal Swamy appeared in the shape of Ananthapadmanabhan, protected him -and his nation - like a guardian angel and disappeared for good, King Marthanda Varma renamed Perumal Swamy Kovil at Vanchiyoor into Sree Anatha Padmanabha Swamy Kovil. This is the present Sree Padmanabha Swamy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram.
Accompanied by the entire Royal family, officials and priests, His Highness proceeded to the newly named Sree Anantha Padmanabha Swamy Koil. His Highness then laid his State Sword before the deity on the Ottakkal Mandapam and dedicated his whole territory to the above deity. After that, His Highness assumed the management of the country as the disciple (Dasan) of that deity. Here, His Highness did   not distinguish between Lord Perumal Swamy and his Kalari master, Ananthapadmanabhan. His Highness simply transformed him into the tutelary deity of the Royal family.
Alternatively, His Highness transformed Lord Perumal Swamy into Lord Anantha Padmanabha Swamy.\
His Highness then changed his own name into Sree Padmanabhadasan Vanchi Bala Marthanda Varma Kulasekara Perumal.
\This happened six months after the death of Ananthapadmanabhan in the Kollam Year, 5 Makaram 925.
 Here, His Highness went a jump ahead of what he did to Mundan.
 No other King had ever done like this.
 Further, His Highness converted Vanchiyoor into Thiruvananthapuram (Thiru + Anantha + Puram = Thiruvananthapuram) after Ananthapadmanabhan.
 Furthermore, as his ancestors ruled from Thiruvithamkode, he changed the name of Venad into Travancore. Thus, the amalgamated country got a new name for the first time and the History of Travancore started from this day.

1. Travancore Manual by Nagam Iiya.
2. Ananthapadmanabhan Varalaru by K.P.Varatharasan.

Note: 1. According to the temple chronicles, Sree Anantha Padmanabhaswamy Kovil had been called Perumal Swamy Koil dedicated to Maha Vishnu from the 7th century to till Marthanda Varma changed its name.
2.Perumal Swamy Koil had been the tutelary deity of the Royal House of Venad. The oldest existing stone sculpture of Maha Vishnu in the reclining form -cut in a single piece of stone- is the one found in Thiruvithancode.  It is now kept in the Padmanabhapuram Palace Museum. This shows that the temple at Thiruvithancode was dedicated to Maha Vishnu and it was the tutelary deity of the Venad kings. It is believed that the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple in Thiruvananthapuram had the roots in Thiruvitankode. It is shown below Courtesy Padmanabhapuram Palace Museum
3. Now a small area in Thiruvanathapuram possesses the name Vanchiyoor. The present District Court functions at Vanchiyoor.
4. When Dalawa Rama Iyen fell ill in 1756, His Highness Marthanda Varma sent heir-apparent Rama Varma to ascertain from the Dalawa his wishes as to the way his name should be perpetuated. He disclaimed any personal right to the proposed honour. He said that he accomplished all his aims. But he added that he was only sorry that he was not permitted to conquer and annex Cochin. The King chose not to construct any memorial for him. 


Ananthapadmanabhan after the times of Marthanda Varma

The successors of His Highness Marthanda Varma named many places and institutions after the name of Ananthapadmanabhan for many years. When a court was established at the heart of Thuckalay, it was named Padmanabhapuram Court. Similarly, the Government Hospital at Thuckalay was named Padmanabhapurm Hospital.  He is the namesake of many other places and institutions. Ananthan Kal, Ananthan Victoria Marthandan Kayal and Padmanabhapuram Muncipality originated from his name.
The most outstanding one was Anantha Victoria Marthandan (AVM) Canal sanctioned in 1860. Uttram Thirunal Maharaja came to the South to commence the excavation work of the canal in the same year. A canal of this magnitude cannot be dug even by spending Re.10,000 crore today (2013).
Recently, the Government of India named the Train plying between Thiruvananthapuram and Chennai via Nagercoil as Ananthapuri Express although the Government did not say that it wanted to honour Ananthapadmanabhan.
Besides, many people name their children after Ananthapadmanabhan. The name of the son of the present King of Travancore, Utharadam Thirunal Maharaja, is Anantha Padmanabhan.
 Now (2018) there exists a demand to construct a memorial for Ananthapadmanabhan in Thachan vilai without causing any damage to the virginity of the place. For this, the government will have to acquire about five acre of land in and around Thachan vilai after giving compensation. However, some people in the old Venad area latently oppose it saying that such a memorial would affect their security and diminish the relative importance of their communities.
Thus, some people in all communities think that the heroic deeds of any man must be recognized wherever he is born. They say that the people are born equally, and the heroic deeds of any man should not be confined to a community and suppressed. Another section think that such a recognition would affect them because their communities did not produce such people. The latter class of people claim that a memorial would disrupt peace in this region.
Some even claim that the word Anantha stands for an obscure king of Venad. However, seldom the people know that the nomenclature is based on the name Ananthapadmanabhan mentioned in this book. Only enlightened people can solve this problem.
However, the stiff opposition indicates that the story of  Ananthapadmanabhan as narrated is true..

Note:1. A victory pillar had been erected at Colachel to commemorate the victory of Venad over the Dutch East India Company. The name "Venad" is missing. But, Travancore and the Conch-shell (Turbinella pyrum) symbol of Travancore could be seen on the pillar.  Venad became Travancore only in 1750. The symbol also was adopted later.
2. The population of Travancore -according to the Census taken on the 18th May 1875 - was 23,11,379. The population of Kerala as per the 2011 Census was 3,33,67,677. One must compare this with the AVM canal. Further, one could envisage the population during the times of Marthanda Varma.
3. Duarte Babboa who visited Malabar, Coulam (kollam) and Venad around 1514 A.D. calls Venad as Triangoto (Thiruvitancode).
4. When India became independent, the kings had to surrender their kingdoms to the Indian Union. They, however, could take their movable properties. The King of Travancore alone did not claim any right to the jewels -running into billions of dollars - present in the Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple at Trivandrum

Two sculptures like these kept in the Padmanabhapuram Palace Museum provide a historic window into the early Venad society and culture.


1. Thiruvadi Desam Thirupparpur Parambarai Maaveeran Ananthapadmababhan Varalaru by K.P. Varatharajan.
2. Travancore State Manual by V. Nagam Iiya.
3.."Times of Marthanda Varma"by Ibrahim Kunchu.
4. "Naattu Varalaru" by T.K. Velu Pillai
5. Wikipedia
6. Oottan Kathai Nattupura Varalattu Kathai Padal.
7. Anatomy of a folklore “Ottan Kathai” A Deified Spy and his King Vira Marttanda Varma by Dr. M. Immanual
8. Maaveeran Ananthapadmanabhan by Dr.P. Sarveswaran and Dr. M. Immanual
9. A Madonna of India by V. Sabarimuthu

Sabarimuthu,V (2006)

Curriculum Vitae of the Author

Sabarimuthu V
Lecturer (Retd) Vellicode, Mulagumoodu PO, PIN : 629167,
 Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, India
M. Sc (Chemistry)     : Mar Ivanios College, Trivandrum, India (1973)
B Sc (Chemistry)                 : Scott Christian College, Nagercoil, India (1971)
Lecturer of Chemistry: Lekshmipuram College of Arts and Science, Neyyoor, India (1974 - 2007)
‘Consolidated report on the National Adult Education Programme (1980)’:
This publication was considered as a pioneering work in the field of adult education and was distributed to all universities and 700 and odd colleges all over India by the then adviser to the Government of India, Prof. L.R. Shaw, as a model.
Self - book publication through the IJDJ Publications
‘An Unconventional Approach to Inorganic Chemistry (1994)’:
 The American International Publishers (AIP) reviewed this book and described it as ‘a valuable addition to the resources of educators’. It was a recognized reference book for the chemistry students of the M.S. University, Tirunelveli.
A copy of the book was presented to the Greens in the North Carolina State University Campus in February 2018. At least three readers wrote a highly positive opinion about the book without any solicitation.
Self-book publication through
1.    English Grammar
2.    A New English Grammar for the Beginners.
1.    Atomic Structure
2.    Atoms, Ions, Environment and Reactivity
3.    The Transition Elements
Contemporary History
1.    Momentous Months
2.    13 Months in Office.
3.    Prime Minister Mr. A.B. Vajpayee and the Abdication of Power
4.    The Warring Among Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Dr.Manmohan Singh and Mrs. Sonia Gandhi
5.    A  Madonna of India Volume 1
6.    A  Madonna of India Volume 2.
7.    The Pranab Effects, Volume 1
8.    ‘We will strange you’ Volume 1.
Social work
The students of the Tamil Medium RC Middle School in my village, Vellicode, lagged behind many schools in English, At the instance of the Headmaster, voluntarily taken English grammar classes to them for seven years at the rate of about 20 classes of 40 minutes duration per year. This school has been securing the first rank among about 100 schools for the last five years.
          Conducted some English grammar classes in two other schools for some time.
Political work
643 letters have been sent to the President of India and the Supreme Court of India since June 2001 to secure the constitutional rights of the people - particularly the freedom of Indians consistent with the Constitution of India. The noninformation of the letters to the people indicates that the Indians are mere slaves and that they have no freedom to choose their own leaders.
Important blog
YouTube videos
Videos on English Grammar, Politics, Economics and Chemistry (Tamil) have been uploaded in the YouTube. The YouTube channel link is given below.
The videos on English grammar demolish the core area of English grammar and present a new one.

Acknowledgements (Common to all books)

          The publication of many books might not have happened without the valuable co-operation and assistance of all the members of my family consistent with their capabilities and opportunities. My wife, M. Stella Bai, is virtually a co-author, elder son S. James, younger son S. Delight, elder daughter S. Irene and her husband John Franklin, younger daughter S. Jasmine Madonna and her husband B. Godwin Bright and even my grand – daughter J. Jessica Lauren helped me in one way or other. Contributions of James and Delight are outstanding. All are entitled to very special acknowledgement and thanks.
          Many in my family reared me for my education. Not a day passes without remembering my father, Mr. T.Vyakappan, mother, Mrs. R.Viyakulamarial, maternal uncle Mr. R.Maria Michael, aunt Rev.Sr. R. Veronica, aunt Mrs. R. Theresammal, her husband Mr. Devasahayam and  Bishop of Vellore Rt. Rev. Antony Muthu,  Maternal uncle Mr. R.Maria Sebastian and his wife Mrs. Thangammal. gave me food on many occasions. Uncle Mr. T. Maria Soosai B.A. B.L. and his wife also took care of me for eight months during my M.Sc., My Uncle Maria Mickael stood like a rock for my education after my Pre-University Course. But for him, I would not have got a degree at all.
          I studied in the Primary School, Vellicode, Alwain Middle School, Kalluvilai and Government High School, Thuckalay. A teacher stuck me mercilessly thinking that I stood in a place disrespectfully. I stopped my education. Another teacher, Mr. Maria Nesan Nadar, sent two class mates – Thavithu and Kutty Nadan – to by house to console me. Then I went to school. I remember them now. 
Dr. John D.K. Sunder Singh and his brother, Jaya Singh, admitted me in the Scott Christian College, Nagercoil. At the instance of Bishop Rt.Rev. Antony Muthu, Arch Bishop Most. Rev. Benedict Mar Gregories granted me admission in the Mar Ivanios College, Trivandrum for post- graduation.
Mr. Jesuadimai contractor and Mr. A. Pauliah M.L.A. helped me for my appointment in the Lekshmipuram College, Neyyoor. State Bank of India Mr. Regunandana Kumar, Mr. A. Sankaranaraynan, Member of Syndicate, Madurai Kamaraj University, State Bank of India Mr. Paul Varnan and Mr. Devasahayam IAS helped me for my reinstatement when I was ousted in 1975 for want of vacancy.
I remember with respect Mr. Maria Arulappan, Mr. Dhachayini Amma, Mr. Innasimuthu, Mr. C. Francis, Mr. Soosai Muthu, Mr.  Arulappan, Mr. A.Israel, S. Parameswari Amma, Mr. Maria Nesan Nadar M.A. B.T., Mr. Moni, Mr. John I. James B.A. B.T., Mr. Revindra Nath B.Sc. B.T, Mr. Sthanunathan Thambi B.A.B.T, Mr. V. Thomson B.A.B.T, Mr. Theodore I.J. Kumarsingh M.Sc. Mr. R.S.A. Sunder Singh M.Sc. Mr.I. Stalin M.Sc, Dr. V.S.David Raj M.Sc, Ph.D., Dr. Nambisan M.Sc.Ph.D; Dr. Scaria M. Chakalackal M.Sc, Ph.D. Mr, Ramasamy M.Sc. Prof. George M. Varghese and all my other great teachers.
Many in my wife’s family are a source of encouragement and happiness. My father-in-law Mr. A. Martin, Mother-in-law- Maria Retnam, brother - in-laws- Mr. Robin Edward Martin B.Sc, Mr. Clement Joe Martin and Dr. Leenus Jesu Martin M.E. Ph.D. and father-in-law’s brother Rev. Fr. A. Jockim and many others take great pride in my achievements. Further, I respectfully acknowledge the happiness of my close relatives, Mrs. Philomena, Mrs. and Mr. T. Retna Swamy M.A., Mrs. and Mr. Bright Xavier M.A. and Mrs. and Mr. Xavior Oscar Dhas M. Sc. 
          I think of the selfless services of Mr. P. Thankaswamy, founder Secretary Lekshmipuram College, Mr. Sundaram Pillai who donated Re.50,000/- in 1974 for protecting the college from disaffiliation and all those who selflessly worked and contributed for the Lekshmipuram College, Neyyoor.
          I remember Thiruvatti Mr. C.Antony Joseph,  Swamithara Vilai  Mr.A.Arulappan, Madathattuvilai Mr. Soosai Michael, Erattan Vilai Mariakkon, Mr. Innasimuthu and Mr. Joseph, Kattuvilai Mr. Sabariyaradimai,  Kizhakkuvilai Mr. Michael and Mr. Joseph, Vellicode Mr. R. Muthaiah B. Com, Mr. I. Sabarimuthu B.E., and all other members of the ‘Gent’s Federation’ Vellicode for inculcating a reading habit in my early days.
          I gratefully remember Dr.Achan Alex, Dr. Maman Thomas and Dr. Venugopalan Nair of Medical College, Trivandrum, Dr. K. Rajendra Retnam (Braine and Spine Centre, Tirunelveli), Dr. Dilip Pande and Dr. N.D. Ramanujam Neurologist, of VHS Adayar, Chennai, Dr. Sebasan, Dr. George M.D., Dr. Selvam, Dr. Arun M.D, Dr. S. Anto ENT, Dr.S.Rex M.D.S., Dr.S.K.Ranjith Kuman M.S, Dr. Narendra Nath, Dr. Jayakumar and all other selfless doctors.
          I respectfully remember Kizhakkuvilai Mr. Varuvel Nadar and my relation, Pulippanam Mr. Devaraj.
 I acknowledge my great colleagues - Mr. A. Francis M.A., Mr. C. Bhagavandhas M.A., Dr.Edwin Sam M.A.Ph.D, Mr. A.M. Mathew M.Sc. C. Augustine M.A. Mr. Anantharaman Iyer M.Sc.,Mr. Russel Raj M.A., Mr. Issac M.A., Librarian Mr. Kumaavel Renganathan, Mr. Pauliah M.Sc; Mr. Govinda Swamy M.A. Mr. Selvin David M. Sc, Mr. Ramachandran M.A., Mr. Chithambara Thanu M.A.,Mr. S. Rajagopalan M.A; Mr. K. Rajagopal M.A; Mr. S. Murugesan M.Sc. S. Kumara Velu M.Sc; Librararian Mr. Saravanan, Dr. Padmanabhan M.A. Ph.D, Dr. Ramalingam Pillai M.Sc. Ph.D, Dr. Sukumaran M.Sc, Ph.D., Mr. Ravikumar M.A., Dr. David Raja Bose M.A. Ph.D., and Mr. Neelakandan M.A. - in the Lekshmipuram College, Neyyoor and my friends – Mr. Thavethu, Mr. Kuttinadan, Kizhakkuvilai Yesudhason, Kizhakkuvilai Mr. V. Laurence, Mr. Melavilai Thobias, Puthuvilai Mr. Rajendran, Kattuvilai Mr.Sabariyaradimai, Mr.M. Gopalan M.A, B.L.Advocate, Mr. Nesaiyan teacher, Dr. R. Sathia Dhas M.A. Ph.D, Avarivilai Barnapaus, Mr. M. Devadhason M.A,  Mr. Thanka Raj M.A. B.Ed  and Mr. Devasahayam teacher.
Lekshmipuram College Principal Mrs. Daisy David M.A. appointed me as the Programme Officer of Adult Education. It was a turning point in my career. I am grateful to her. My publication on the National Adult Education Programme (NAEP), 1980, was distributed to 80 universities and 700 and odd colleges all over India by Prof. L.R.Shah, the then adviser to the Government of India as a model, This boosted my self-confidence and the standing among the teachers. I must thank them. In fact, it was a great motivation to do more and more.
Headmaster Mr. Irudhayadhason gave me a chance to teach English Grammar to children. The teachers and the students co-operated. I utilized it to demolish the core area of English grammar and constructed a new one. It is not possible to explain the essence of English grammar in a reasonable way without my books. No one has disputed this claim. It gives me great satisfaction. I am indebted to him.
          The Indian political system comprising the successive Presidents since Mr. K. R. Narayanan and virtually all political leaders contributed their share for my development in one way or other. Many leaders like Mr. H.D. Deve Gowda, Mr. A.K. Antony acknowledged my letters for freedom. At one time, I dropped different letters to more than 250 Members of Parliament. I could not contact all due to practical difficulties. Barring one political leader, all leaders digested my letters without the slightest disagreement.
          Prime Minister of England Mr. Tony Blair, Prime Minister of England Gordon Brown, Prime Minister of the Netherlands Dr.Dr. Jan Peter Balkenende, Her Royal Highness the Queen of Travancore Gouri Lekshimi Bai and many other world leaders acknowledged and gave their opinions to my letters for freedom. Her Royal Highness Queen Elizabeth ‘lighted fire’ on two occasions. I described her as a Madonna of England. The Emperor of Japan ‘lighted fire’ as mentioned in the book, ‘A Madonna of India’.
I sent many letters by post to the learned judges of the Supreme Court of India since June 2001. I thought that they would revolt against the BALCO judgment. It did not happen. Then I sent 563 emails to the Supreme Court of India, President of India, Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) and Election Commission of India (ECI). Several emails were sent to the Indian Army, Indian Air Force and many others. Then I stopped sending the emails to them. After that a few letters were sent to the Secretary General of the United Nations (UN). After Mr. Ram Nath Kovind assumed power as the President of India, I remained quiet for a few months. But, he alienated the Essar Oil to Russia. He could not  give any relief to Justice Karnan. Further, Finance Minister Mr. Arul Jaitely said that privatization is an art in India and started taking speedy steps to alienate the Air India. Therefore, I resumed sending emails to the President of India with great intensity pointing out his constitutional duty and concentrated my attention to convert my works into books through
On 12 January 2018, four out of five senior most judges of the Supreme Court of India came out and ‘lighted fire’ saying that democracy was in peril. What I expected in 2002 happened in 2018! It was the first press conference of judges ever in the history of India.
This means that 80 per cent of the judges agree that there is no democracy or constitutionalism in India.
India is replete with intellectuals. There are many great achievers in India. However, this work is a great achievement for the 1000 million people of India. That I could achieve it without a word of support from the media is a source of great satisfaction.
          I repeatedly sought the help of the media all over the world in the fond hope that due publicity would bring freedom to Indians.
When a girl in Tamil Nadu committed suicide protesting the NEET, I sent an email each to virtually all newspapers and TV Channels all over the world again in vain. The media simply steered the attention of the people to other matters.
          Notwithstanding everything, the soil of my village, Vellicode, the college I worked - Lekshmipuram College, Neyyoor - and India is responsible for my growth.
          Finally, I am very grateful to all those who helped me in one way or other.

Sabarimuthu. V. (2018)

Note: The paperback edition of this book, Ananthapadmanabhan, can be purchased from the